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John  J  White ,  III ,  MES,  Columbus ,  Ohio


             Issue #83 of Ancient American Magazine features an article gA Minoan Pendant Found in Ohioh by Frank Joseph and Daniel Byers.1  They discussed the pendant shown below as a Minoan Pendant found in Ohio, and I would like to give an alternative explanation of certain aspects of the likely meaning of the images.


             For 15+ years I have advocated a worldwide religion of mankind called Earth Mother Culture (EMC), which features an Earth Mother Goddess and an Earth Father God, who are the deities of the basic fertility religion of mankind that has been practiced for perhaps 100,000 years.  An alternative approach is to advocate pieces of the collective mythology of mankind, which is a jumble of the religions that began to compete with EMC around 3000 BCE and has been poorly researched and organized.


             There is no reason to infer that an artifact is Minoan and then suggest that the culture represented shared a lot of complexities with others.  If any outside influences were important, they surely were Egyptian and Mesopotamian.



Obverse of the Minoan Pendant


             The obverse of the alleged Minoan Pendant shows an anthropomorphic man (a male god) with a human body from the shoulders down.  He has a cattle head with what appears to be a horn at the top front.  A serpent extends from his chest (see serpent head) to the top back of the head.  This serpent or a second could explain the head band and rope-like object behind the head.  The lower right object could be a efishf or small snakes.  The item above the efishf looks like a hand of the god holding a sacred object.  I canft identify the upper right object, but it may be a mouse or part of a serpent.  The obverse image likely portrays a compound symbol of the ancient Earth Father.


             The reverse of the pendant is a bit more abstract, but it is very consistent with later Greek art.  A major symbol of the Earth Mother is the bird.  We observe this bird image in the art of Rome, Greece, Egypt, etc.  Thus I perceive the reverse side to be a standing bird with extended wings.  This is surely a symbol of the great Earth Mother.  I agree that this is the basis for the axe symbol of ancient Crete


Reverse of the Minoan Pendant


             My studies of EMC have shown that a large fraction of ancient art images were religious in nature.  The symbols do not appear to tell stories; they show loyalty and imply a request of protection by the gods.  With no authority controlling the range of symbols employed, ancient priests and artists had freedom to portray the Gods with numerous representations, ie, humans, animals, plants, and geometric symbols.  In this case, we have a horned male and a bird female.  These are merely symbols.


             I have published many articles2-4 about the identification of the ancient gods.  These have shown a major tendency for ancient art to include a likely male symbol and a likely female symbol.  Surely some of them are royalty and heroes.  Of course, most people were named after the gods, perhaps confusing the distinction.


             The Minoan connection for the pendant appears certain, unless we find a race of Minoan imitators.  The likely interest was the Lake Superior copper.  Given that attraction, there were many reasons to explore the Great Lakes region.


 1.         Frank Joseph and Daniel Byers, gA Minoan Pendant Found in Ohioh, The Ancient American 13(83), 6-7 (2009).

2.         JJ White, gRevisit to the Ancient Indian Pipe of Kosciusko Museum in Warsaw, INh, Midwestern Epigraphic Journal 11, 94 (1997).

 3.         JJ White, geHand/Eye of Godf Symbols Are Ancienth, Midwestern Epigraphic Journal 21, 111 (2007).

 4.         JJ White, gSymbolism Observed at the Pueblo Indian Cultural Centerh, Midwestern Epigraphic Newsletter 25(1), 1p (2008).

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